CCS | CO2 Migration | Reservoir Model Calibration
The injection of CO2 into geological formation can induce deformation of the ground surface. For this reason, CO2 storage projects require long-term monitoring strategies: InSAR is highly competitive compared to conventional techniques, providing precise wide-area deformation patterns at a relatively low cost.
The CCS project at In-Salah. InSAR measurements of surface ground deformation have revealed fluid flow associated with the geological storage of CO2. The analysis of the double-lobed pattern in range change over the injection well KB-502 suggests the opening of a tensile feature. Vertical and horizontal surface displacement values have been used to model fault opening, providing a good match between predicted and observed data.
Reservoir integrity. By regularly monitoring displacement with InSAR, site engineers can control injection activities to ensure reservoir pressure distribution and surface uplift remain within safe operational limits.
Reservoir model calibration. According to the spatial distribution of deformation, it is possible to infer how CO2 plume propagation is oriented. Ground displacement measurements incorporated into subsurface models can also be used to calculate reservoir volume and permeability changes.
Active fault detection. InSAR displacement maps can highlight rapid changes in movement rates over large areas, correlating with fault structures, fracture systems and reservoir boundaries. Fault reactivation due to injection can be characterized and monitored through regular acquisitions of radar images.
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